Exposure to source-related components of particle air pollution
Title: Exposure to source-related components of particle air pollution
Summary: Almeida S.M., Faria T., Martins V., Canha N., Diapouli E., Manousakas M.I., Eleftheriadis K.
Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure has been identified as a global health threat. Past research has focused primarily on PM mass concentration measured in fix monitoring stations, so the types and sources of particles most responsible for these adverse health associations are not known. Therefore, the World Health Organization (WHO) has placed a high priority on determining which constituents and sources of the PM are most responsible for these reported health effects As noted by the WHO (2007), this would “facilitate targeted abatement policies and more effective control measures to reduce the burden of disease due to air pollution”.
LIFE Index-Air project (www.lifeindexair.net) presents a novel policy tool for the development of effective PM pollution strategies, based on an integrated exposure-dose-burden of disease assessment. The tool is being initially implemented in Lisbon and Porto (Portugal), Treviso (Italy), Athens (Greece) and Kuopio (Finland). Nevertheless, it has been designed in such a way as to allow in the future adjustment of its content and inclusion of other cities as well. The tool focuses on the exposure of school children and uses data collected experimentally in Lisbon on PM concentrations outdoors and in selected indoor microenvironment (homes, schools, and transport modes), as well as time-activity information. This work integrated the data collected in the different microenvironments and identified the sources that affect the children exposure to particles in Lisbon.
This study was performed at 40 houses, 5 schools and respective outdoor sites during the years 2017-2018. Leckel MVS6 samplers were used to collect PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 on Teflon filters, which were analysed by X-Ray Fluorescence for the measurement of major and trace elements, and on quartz filters, which were analysed by the Thermo-Optical Transmittance method for the determination of the organic and elemental carbon. A source apportionment analysis of the PM data was carried out by means of Positive Matrix Factorization to identify the main sources and their contribution.
The PMF identified six source factors that contributed to PM: vehicles exhaust, secondary sulfates, mineral dust, a Pb source, sea salt and road dust. The mineral factor was identified by crustal species such as Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cr. In schools, the contribution of this source was significantly higher than in homes and outdoors, showing the important contribution of the high activity of primary schools students in the resuspension of deposited particles in classrooms.
Vehicles exhaust and road dust profiles comprise organic and elemental carbon from motor exhaust, metals form brake wear and mineral elements from the soil resuspension. Results showed a good correlation between the vehicles contribution to indoor (both in homes and schools) and the correspondent outdoor sites indicating significant children exposure to PM originating from outdoor urban sources, due to high aerosol infiltration rates.
This work was supported by LIFE Index-Air project (LIFE15 ENV/PT/000674). Authors gratefully acknowledge the FCT support through the UID/Multi/04349/2013 project and the PhD grant SFRH/BD/129149/2017. This work reflects only the authors’ view and EASME is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
References: WHO (World Health Organization). 2007. Health Relevance of Particulate Matter from Various Sources. Report on a WHO workshop Bonn, Germany 26–27 March 2007. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Type of publication: Oral Abstract of ICEH 2019 (Lisbon, Portugal, 25-27 September)
How to cite: Almeida S.M., Faria T., Martins V., Canha N., Diapouli E., Manousakas M.I., Eleftheriadis K. (2019) Exposure to source-related components of particle air pollution. ICEH 2019 – 4th International Congress on Environmental Health, Lisbon, Portugal, 25-27 September.
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